Cholesterol is one of the most important nutrients in metabolism. Cholesterol enters the body from animal products.
Cholesterol is a lipophilic alcohol that plays a role in the formation of cell membranes, the synthesis of certain hormones and vitamins, and other metabolic processes.
Cholesterol is necessary for the body, but its high content can lead to diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol is transported throughout the body by carriers in the bloodstream: high and low density lipoproteins. Low-density lipoproteins are called "bad" cholesterol, and when they increase in the blood, the risk of cardiovascular pathology increases significantly. Therefore, doctors strongly recommend reducing their levels. However, a decrease in high-density lipoproteins increases the risk of heart disease.
In healthy people, the level of cholesterol in the blood is 5 mol / l and below. Cholesterol intake by healthy people should not exceed 300 mg per day, with an increase in blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) should not exceed 200 mg per day.
General description of the diet
The purpose of the diet for high cholesterol is to reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol, prevent the development of pathology of the cardiovascular system, normalize the function of the kidneys and liver, activate metabolic processes and improve blood circulation.
The diet must meet the principle of mechanical saving, which has a beneficial effect not only on the digestive system, but also on the cardiovascular system.
The diet for high cholesterol is in accordance with treatment schedules 10 and 10C.
The treatment schedule for high cholesterol includes limiting salt and fats (mostly of animal origin).
Table features (per day):
- energy value 2190 - 2570 kcal;
- proteins - 90 grams. , 55 - 60% of them are of animal origin;
- oils 70 - 80 grams, at least 30 grams. vegetables;
- not more than 300 grams of carbohydrates. 350 grams for overweight people and people with normal body weight.
Basics of diet
Food fraction, 5 times a day. This allows you to reduce portions of food and suppress hunger between meals.
The temperature of the food is normal, there are no restrictions.
The amount of table salt is limited to 3 - 5 grams, the dish is prepared without salt, if necessary, salted on the table. Salt causes fluid retention in the body, which increases the load on the cardiovascular system.
Use of up to 1. 5 liters of free fluid (emptying of the cardiovascular and urinary systems).
Alcohol, especially hard drinks, should be avoided. However, doctors recommend taking 50-70 ml of natural red wine at night (unless contraindicated), flavonoids with antioxidant properties (thus, dry red wine protects the walls of blood vessels from the formation of atherosclerotic plaques). In addition, smoking is strictly prohibited.
Obese and overweight people need to normalize their weight. Excess body fat is an additional source of "bad" cholesterol, as well as complicating the work of the heart and blood vessels.
Foods rich in lipotropic substances and vitamins
Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins C and P, B group, potassium and magnesium salts should be preferred. These vitamins protect the walls of blood vessels due to their antioxidant effects, and potassium and magnesium are involved in heart rhythm.
If possible, vegetable oils should be changed as much as possible. Vegetable oils do not contain cholesterol, in addition, they are high in vitamin E (antioxidant), which is good for the walls of blood vessels.
Prohibited foods for high cholesterol
The list of foods banned for high cholesterol includes primarily animal fats - they are a source of "bad" cholesterol.
You also need to give up carbohydrates that are easily digested, converted to fats, and eventually converted to cholesterol.
You should not eat foods that activate and excite the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
Food should be steamed, boiled or baked. Frying products are eliminated due to the formation of low-density lipoproteins and carcinogens during the frying process. Almost all vegetables are consumed cooked, because large amounts of raw fiber cause flatulence.
List of banned products:
- rich fresh bread, yeast and pastry products, pancakes, fried pies, pancakes, pasta from soft wheat varieties (easily digestible carbohydrates);
- high-fat milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, cheeses;
- fried and boiled eggs (especially yolks - a source of saturated fat);
- soups in fish and meat concentrated and fatty broth, mushroom broth;
- fatty meat (lamb, pork), poultry (duck, goose), chicken skin, especially fried, sausage, sausage;
- oily fish, caviar, salted fish, canned food, fried fish with margarine and solid oils;
- solid fats (lard, margarine, cooking oil);
- squid, shrimp;
- natural coffee brewed from beans (oils are extracted from beans during brewing);
- vegetables, especially fried in solid oils (chips, potato fries, fried in soup), coconut and salted nuts;
- mayonnaise, sour cream and cream sauces;
- confectionery creams, chocolate, cocoa, cakes, ice cream.
Foods recommended for high cholesterol in the diet should contain large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, which are a source of "good" cholesterol.
First of all, this applies to fish that contain omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids. Fish is also a source of vitamin D.
Large amounts of soluble fiber (oatmeal) increase the level of high-density lipoproteins. Fresh vegetables and fruits contain many antioxidants that strengthen blood vessel walls. Nuts also contain a lot of antioxidants (vitamin E).
A diet with high cholesterol levels is designed to normalize the ratio of high-grade lipoproteins (increasing) and low-grade lipoproteins (decreasing).
List of allowed products:
- dried or yesterday's bread, wholemeal flour, wholemeal bread, whole wheat pasta;
- any amount of vegetable oil, except palm oil (fill salads with unrefined vegetable oil);
- vegetables: potatoes, cauliflower and white cabbage, carrots (removes toxins), lettuce (a source of folic acid), pumpkin, zucchini, beets;
- lean meat and poultry (rabbit, turkey and skinless chicken, veal, lean beef);
- seafood: combs, oysters, mussels and crustaceans are limited;
- fish, especially sea, low-fat species (cooked and boiled): tuna, mezgit fish, flounder, pollock, cod, hake;
- legumes as a source of plant protein;
- nuts (walnuts, peanuts) contain large amounts of phospholipids, which reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol, are a source of vitamin E;
- Onions and garlic contain a lot of vitamin C, protect the walls of blood vessels, remove lime deposits and fats from the body;
- oatmeal, cereals, puddings from other cereals (grains should be cooked in diluted milk);
- low-fat milk, low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream, kefir, yogurt, low-fat and unsalted cheeses;
- juices, especially from citrus fruits (a lot of ascorbic acid, which strengthens the vascular wall);
- weakly brewed tea, milky coffee, vegetable decoctions, hips, compotes;
- spices: pepper, mustard, spices, vinegar, lemon, horseradish.
Dietary compliance regulates the content of high and low density lipoproteins, thereby reducing the level of "bad" cholesterol.
The treatment schedule for high cholesterol allows you to normalize its composition without taking medication. In addition, in people who follow a diet, the arteries remain "clean" for a long time, they do not impair blood circulation, which has a beneficial effect not only on the condition of the cardiovascular system, but also on its condition. skin, nails and hair.
High levels of antioxidants in the recommended foods with high cholesterol slow down the aging of the skin, prevent the development of pathologies of the internal organs and increase vitality.
Consequences of not following a diet
High cholesterol in the blood is the first sign of impending atherosclerosis of the arteries.
With atherosclerosis, plaques form on the walls of blood vessels, which narrows the lumen of the arteries, threatening not only the development of circulatory disorders in the body as a whole, but also dangerous complications such as stroke and myocardial infarction. .
Also, high cholesterol is one of the factors contributing to the development of hypertension and cerebral atherosclerosis (memory impairment, vision loss, tinnitus, sleep disturbances, dizziness).